Agawam Alive in 1643/44 in Middleborough, MA. (1) Among those sachems who came to the Governor to tender themselves to the government of Massachusetts.
Agona was living about 1540 in St. Croix River.(2) Said to be the successor of Donacona who also met with Cartier five years after Donacona was taken to France.
Amie Alive.(3) (4) She is called Amie by the English, and “sister of Philip and daughter of Massasoit.” Little is known about her other than her marriage. No birth date is here, nor death date. Parents: Massasoit (Ousamequin) Sachem.
Annawon Alive in 1672.(5) (6) he is among those of Philip signing several deeds for sale for Land in and around Taunton in latter part of the year, and is earlier mentioned as one of his chiefs or counselors. He died in 1676/77 in Plymouth, MA. (7) He surrendered to Plymouth under the promise of “good quarter,” however he was executed at Plymouth at the same time with Tuspaquin. It was Annawon who led those not captured or killed with Philip at the final battle at Mount Hope out of the swamp.
Aspinet Alive in 1621 in Nauset.(8) Sachem of Nauset where the English went to look for the lost Billington boy. Aspinet delivered up the boy in a formal fashion “behung with beads, and made peace with us. . .” Aspinet was living in 1622 when he sells 8 or 10 hogsheads of corn and beans to the colonists. We see him later when Standish returns for the corn and as Drakes says “as usual gets himself in difficulty with the Indians.” Making what would appear to be a mountain out of molehill, so to speak, over a few stolen trinkets, Standish goes to Aspinet and demands return of them, “or else he would revenge it on them before his departure . . .refusing whatsoever kindness they offered.” The next morning Aspinet went to the English in “a stately manner” and restored all the “trifles.”
Assacumet (Amoret) Alive in Jun 1605 in Pemaquid, MA.(9) (10) Among those captured by Captain George Weymouth. Drake calls him Assacumet. He Alive in 1606 in At Sea. (11) He was one of two Indians sent out with Capt Henry Challons, the other being “Manida.” Challoons was captured by the Spaniards and the Indians with him. Assacomet was apparently recovered for San Ferdinando writes: “I had recovered Assacumet, one of the natives I sent with Capt. Cahlownes . . .” Ferdinando prparing for another voyage under Capt. Hobson, sent Epenow, Assacumet and Wanape. (also called Manawet) with him.
Assasamoogh Alive in 1665 in Nantucket, MA.(12) He was a preacher to the Indians on the island and known by the English as John Gibbs. Philip attempts to kill him for speaking disrespectfully of his father, but Assamoog, barely forewarned, leaped a precipice to safety. Philip was not to be thwarted and utlimately negotiated his ransom for “nearly all the money upon the island.” Assamoog was said to be still living there about ten years afterward and had thirty members in his church. He was also known as John Gibbs, preacher.
Assowetough Alive on 23 Dec 1673.(13) Tuspaquin and son William deed to Assowetough, daughter of John Sassmon, a neck of land at Assowamset, called Nahteawamet, bounded by Mashquomoh swam . . DEc. 23, 1673. She died about 1696.(14) She makes a will 1696 giving her lands to her daughter Mercy Felix, the wife of Benjamin Tuspaquin. She was also known as Betty by the English. (15) Her lands came to be called, and still are known as “Betty’s Neck.” Parents: John Sausaman.
Awashonks Alive in 1671.(17) She is called Chieftan of the Seconets and later in June also agrees to a submmission in which she agrees to give up all of her arms. Previously an attempt by Major Josiah Winslow to seize their arms had failed. Among those signing the “submission.” were Awasuncks, Totatomet and Somagaonet. Samuel Baker and John Almey were witnesses. By August she further puts herself peaceable submission in a letter to Gov. Prince. She Alive in 1675 in Seconet.(18) In Spring of 1675, she was a little inclined to join with Philip, but called the respected Benjamin Church who had settled in the area to gain his input. He immediately went to her and after much dialogue, advised her to put herself under the protection of Plymouth as he felt the war would surely prove her ruin if she joined with Philip. Escorted safely back to his home, Church immediately proceeded to Plymouth by way of Pocasset to see Weetamoo, Queen Sachem.
John Bryant Alive in 1675 in Dartmouth, MA.(20) He is among those of Philip’s warriors who attacked Dartmouth.
Canonchet Alive in 1674/75.(21) He was Sachem of the Narragansets as the beginning of Philip’s War. He is called an able, prudent and brave chief. He died April/May 1676 in Stonington. (22) See general notes. Captured by the English at Pawtucket, taken to Stonington and there shot by Oneco, son of Uncas, his life-long enemy, and two Sachems of the Pequods of equal rank. It is said “There is no nobler figure in all the annals of the American Indians than Canochet, son of Miantonimoh, Sachem of the Narragansets.”[ NEHGR 44:143.] Parents: Miantonimo.
Canonicus Alive in 1623.(23) Narraganset Sachem He died on 4 Jun 1647.(24) He is thought to have been about eighty-five years old at his death. His decease was observed by all the Natives as a great and sad event. He is called a man of extraordinary capacity in Notes On the Indian Wars in New England, 12:166.
Caunbitant Alive on 13 Sep 1621 in Mattapoiset, MA.(25) Caunbitant and eight other Sachems came to Plymouth and signed a treaty with the English. He Alive 1621 August in Namasket, MA. (26)(27) Corbitant, called a petty sachem, and one of Massasoit’s tributaries, was at Namasket denouncing the peace treaty between Massasoit and the Pilgrims.
In about August of 1621, about a month after Winslow’s trip to Massasoit, Massasoit, it had been learned by the colony, had recently been driven from his territory by the “Narragansetts,” and Corbitant was, in the absence of Massasoit, propounding his own views of the treaty. He was also known as Corbitant, Coubatant. (28)(29) NEHG 54:161 [Weetamoo: A New England Queen Of The Seventeenth Century]. Corbitant is here noted as one of the most “renowned” chiefs under Massasoit. His headquarters were at Mattapuyst or Mattapoiset, in the southern part of what constitues the present town of Swansea, MA, and but a few miles distant from the Indian village of Sowams, the principal residence of Massasoit.
In 1623, Winslow, on his visit to see the ailing Massasoit, lodged with Conbatant at “Mattapuyst.” and called him “a notable politician, yet full of merry jests and squibs, and never better pleased than when the like are returned again upon him.” Amongst other things he asked me, if in case he were thus dangeriously sick, as Massasoit had been, and should send word thereof to to Patuxet for maskiest (physic) whether their master governor would send it . . .” Caunbitant further queried Winslow: “if your love be such, and it bring forth such fruits, how cometh it to pass that when we come to Patuxet, you stand upon your guard, with the mouth of your pieces presented toward us?” Winslow replied that it was a mark of respect, but to this he shook his head and answered, that he did not like such salutations [Drake 93, Citation, Good News From N England, Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc.]
Weetamo in the article, New England Queen, is supposed as his daughter. It was he who captured Squanto the famous Plymouth interpreter at Namasket (Middleborough) interpreter, threatening “if Squanto were but dead the white men would have lost their tongue.” He apparently released Squanto, never carrying out the threat and returned to Mattapoiset.
The English were always viewed by him as intruders and enemies of his race, and there is little doubt but he intended to wrest the coutnry out of their hands on the first opportunity. [Drake 93]
It is not known what became of this chief, according to Drake.
Children were: Namumpum.
Cheemaughton Alive in 1672.(30) Among those selling a tract of land with Philip including the town of Taunton.
Chikataubut was living on 13 Sep 1621 in Naponset River, MA. (31) Titicut was apparently his summer resort, however he is noted as chiefly living upon the river of “Naponset” near to the “Mattachusetts Fields.” 3 miles to the north of the “Wessaguseus.” He among the Sachems who sign the Articles of Submission to King James of this date. He Alive on 23 Mar 1630 in Boston, MA.(32) On this day Chikataubut visits Boston “with his Sannops and Squaws, and presented the Governor with a hogsead of Indian corn.” He died in 1633 in “About” Boston, MA.(33) (34) Died of Small Pox. He is noted as being Chieftan of the Massachusetts Indians and the greatest Sagamore in all the country. He was one of the nine Sachems who subscribed the Articles of Submission to King James on the 13th of September, 1621, it being noted by Dudley that “he least favoreth the English of any Sagamore we are acquainted with” by reason of a quarrel between him and the men of Plymouth, in which he lost seven of his best men.
At the time of the signing he is said to have worn English clothing and sat at the governor’s table, “where he behaved himself as soberly & c. as an Englishman.”[Drake 108]
He is called Chief Chikataubut of Neponser in “Notes on the Indian War in New England.”
Mourt’s Relations and Thomas Morton are quoted by Drake with some caution against the latter when he relates the depradations of Indian graves during the first settlings of Plymuoth. One such grave was said to be that of the mother of Chikataubut. Says Mourt’s Relations: ” We brought sundry of the prettiest things away with us, and covered the corpse up again,” and “there were a variety of opinions amongst us about the embalmed person.” Morton says that it was the grave of the mother of Chikataubut.
The first attack at Namsketit was thought to be a result of the depredations upon Indian graves and corn.[Drake, 108]
In June of 1631, Chikataubut was ordered to pay a small skin of beaver, to satisfy for one of his men’s having killed a pig. On the other hand a man named Plastowe accused of stealing corn from Chikataubut was ordered to restore it two-fold, to lose his title of gentleman and to pay L5. His accomplices were whipped to the same amount [Drake 108].
in 1632, Chikataubut was engaged with other sachems agains the Pequots. [Drake 108]
Chikataubut died some time in November 1633 of Smallpox which was very prevalent among the Indians that year. [Drake 108]
Jeremy Chikataubut Alive in 1671 in Middleborough, MA. (36) In this years he confirms that Squamaug, his father Josias(h)”s brother acted as Sachem during his minority in his behalf. Parents: Josias Wampatuk Chikataubut.
Children were: Charles Josiah Chikataubut.
Conecomam Alive in 1611 in Capoge.(38) Among three captured at Capoge and Nohono, the others being Epenow and( Nohono) Sakaweston.
Coneconam Alive in 1623 in Manomet–Cape Cod.(39) He is mentioned as among those victims of that area who later died of starvation and disease at an unknown date, but after the deaths of Wittuwamet and Peksuot. [Drake p. 78] Sachem of Manomet on Cape Cod [Drake 94]
Standish, in February of 1623, returned to Cape Cod to pick up Corn and to purchase more. “While at Coneconam’s house with to or three of his company, in came two of the Massachusetts men. The chief of them was called Wittuwamat.” It seems that Coneconam was very partial to Wittuwaamet.[Drake 96]
Cutshamekin was living in 1641 in Dorchester, MA.(40) See reference to Josiah Wampatuck his nephew whom he raised. He Alive in 1643/44 in prob Dorchester, MA.(41) He, Agawam and Josias, Chikatabot’s heir, came to the Governor and in their own names and all Sachems of Watchusetts and all the Indians from Merrimack to Tecticutt, “tendered themselves” to the (Massachusetts) government He died before 1655 in Middleborough, MA.(42) He was also known as Kuchamakin.(43) Said to suffer the English, but at odds with Elliot and his “Praying Indians.” ostensibly because of the lack of “tributes” (revenue) from his subjects as a result of their conversions.
He is here called a man of ardent feelings, hasty in resentments and impassioned in his sorrow.
Dehamda was living in 1605 in Pemaquid – New England Coast. (44) One of the five natives captured and carried away by Capt. George Waymouth.
Donacona was living in 1535 in St. Croix River.(45) A chief upon the River St. Croix met by voyager James Cartier in 1535 and who was taken by Cartier to France where he soon after died.
Epenow (Epanow) Alive in 1611 in Capoge.(46) Captured by Capt Harlow. Sir Ferdinando refers to the man as Henry Harley, however. Earlier thought to have been captured by Captain Hunt, which Drake disputes. Prince thinks Harlow and Harley to be the same man. Drake, p. 72.
Sir Ferdinando calls him of Capawick. He Alive in 1614 in Cape Cod, MA. (47)(48) Sent on a voyage with Captain Hobson under Sir Ferdinando Georges from England to discover gold. Epenow had made them believe they knew where gold was to be found in abundance. With Epenow were Assacumet and Wenape (Wanape, Manawet). Epenow who was visited aboard ship by his friends and acquaintances planed and executed a daring escape in which he leaped overboard and protected by a shower of arrows from his fellow Indians did escape.
The shower of arrows apparently wounded quite a few, including Captain Hobson, himself. Drake p. 74. He Alive in 1619 in Capoge. (49) Several years later when Captain Dermer (Dorme) (also under the command of Gorges) came to this place, Epenow met with him and later attacked and wounded Dermer, though not fatally, although he received “14 wounds” and had to repair to Virginia to be cured of same. Sir Ferdinando writes of Epanow: I might best continue life in my languishing hopes, there come one Henry Harley unto me, bringing with him a native of the Island of Capawick, a place seated to the southward of Cape Cod, whose name was Epenewe, a person of goodly stature, strong and well proportioned. This man was taken upon the main, [by force] with some 29 others by a ship of London that endeavored to sell them for slaves in Spaine, out being understood that they were Americans, and being found to be unapt for their uses, they would not meddle with them, this being one of them they refused . . .How Captain Harley came to be possessed of this savage, I know not, but I understood by others how he had been shown in London for a wonder. It is true (as I have said) that he was a goodly man, of a brave aspect, stout and sober . . .”
Drake cites Gorges and the escape of Epenow: . . .”But Epenow privately (as it appeared) had contracted with his friends, how he might make his escape without performing what he had undertaken, being in truth no more than he had told me he was to do though with loss of his life. For otherwise had it been found that he had discovered the secrets of his country he was sure to have his brains knockt out as soon as he came ashore; [Drake here comments,"The secrets of the sandy island Capoge, or the neighboring shores of Cape Cod, whatever they are now, existed only in faith of such sanguine minds as Sir Ferdinando and his adherents."] for that cause I gave the captain strict charge to endeavor by all means to prevent his escaping from them. . . ” Epenow, however, did escape, in a most daring fashion.
Felix Alive on 11 Mar 1673 in Lakeville, MA.(50) Lakeville is the contemporary, prob. Assowamsett neck. He died before 1679.(51) Gov Winslow ordered “that all such lands as were formerly John Sassasom’s in our collonie, shall be settled on Felix his son-in-law, and to remain his and his heirs forever.”
She was married to Benjamin Tuspaquin.
Hobbamock died before 1642 in Plymouth, MA?.(54) The well known Plymouth “Medicine Man.” Hobomok, or Hobbamock, wa a great paniese or war captain among the Wampanoags, a great chief, and one of Massasoit’s counselors. and as is well known, came to Plimouth about the end of July 1621 and continued with them as long as he lived. He is call by Morton “proper lusty young man, and one that was in account among the Indians in those parts for his valor.” [Drake 102]
He became a Christian, much to Massasoit’s dismay. In the division of land at Plimouth he was among the inhabitants to receive a lot as his share. The year of his death does not appear, but was previous to 1642. He remained faithful to Massasoit and the English to the end.
He was married to Unknown unknown in unknown. (55) Of her we know practically nothing other than that she was sent to Pokanoket to gain intelligence from Massasoit who Squantum claimed was in alliance with others to destroy the English. [Drake 103}
Iyanough Alive in Jun 1621.(56) Iyanough was sachem of Cummaquid, according to Mourt. Drake cites Mourt in the following. He then appeared about 26 years of age," but very personable, gentle, courteous and fair-conditioned, indeed, not like a savage, save for his attire. His entertainment was answerable to his parts, and his cheer plentiful and various."
The English were once again entertained by Iyanough upon their return to Plymouth when weather forced them to touch again at Cummaquid.
He was among those who came to have such dread of the English that they "forsook their wonted habitations, fled into the swamps, and lived in unhealthy places, in a state of starvation, until many died with diseases which they had thus contracted." [Drake, 78]
John Alive.(57) He is called only by the name John in this volume, and was sagamore of Patucket, upon the Merrimac.
Children were: daughter of John.
daughter of John Alive.(58) She is simple called his daughter. Her only son John was killed by white ruffians who came upon them in while in their wigwams, at which time she was also badly wounded. Parents: John and Oonamog .
Kutchamaquin Alive in Sep 1643 in Plymouth, MA.(59) Among those sachems of this date who signed a convenant with Massachusetts putting themself under the English government. He was sachem of Dorchester and vicinity. Josiah Wampatuck was his nephew [Drake 109, according to Gookin].
Magnus (Quiapen) died Poss 2 Jul 1676.(60) The Connecticut forces with their Mohegin and Pequod allies massacred the people of the “Old Queen,” Magnus, known also as the “Sunk Squaw,” and also as “Quiapen,” on July 2nd. It does not specifically say she died during this encounter.
Mamanewa Alive in 1671.(61) He, and his brother, in disagreement with is mother, refuse to acknowledge any authority of Plymouth over them, as did also Awashonks brother, but his name does not appear. Parents: Tolony and Awashonks.
Manatahqua (Black William) Alive in 1631 in Nahant.(62) He died in 1633 in Richmond’s Island, MA. (63) Drake: Hanged by pirate hunters who had put in at Richmond Island. It is said to have been in revenge for the earlier death of a Walter Bagnall, though nothing appears whether he had anything to do with it, nor did his murderers pretend that he did. On the contrary it was mentioned that Bagnall was killed by Squidrayset and his men, some Indians belonging to that part of the country. Bagnall was called a “wicked fellow” who had much wronged the Indians and was killed near the mouth of Saco River, probably by some of those whom he had defrauded, Oct. 1631. A sachem and proprietor of Nahantl, also called Black William. His father lived at Swampscotg and was also a sagamore, but probably was dead before the English settled in the country. A traveler in this then wilderness takes note of him [1633 William Wood, author of New Eng. Prospect] “One Balck-william, an Indian duke, out of his generosity gave this place in general to the plantation of Saugus, so that no other can appropriate it to himself.”
Manedo (Manida) Alive in Jul 1605 in Pemaquid, MA. (64)(65) Among the five captured by Capt. Weymouth. He is called gentlemen. He Alive in 1606 in At Sea. (66) He, together with Amoret (various sp) was captured along with Captain Challon by the Spaniards and may have returned to England later.
Masacononomo (Massaconomet) Alive in 1630 in Cape Ann, MA. (67) Sachem of Agawam, since called Ipswich. He welcomed in 1630 the fleet which brought over the colony that settled Boston, and spent some time aboard on of the ships [Drake, Hist of N England citation, p. 110]
He deeded land in 1638.(68) “all his lands in Ipswich” to John Winthrop, jr., for the sum of L20.” He Alive in 1643 in Plymouth, MA.(69) Among the sachems agreeing to a Massachusetts covenant that put him under English rule upon this date. He died on 6 Mar 1658 in Ipswich, MA. (70) He was buried on Sagamore Hill, now within the bounds of Hamilton, with his gun and other valuable instruments. In the town records of Ipswich a grant is made June 18, 1658, to the widow of Mascononomo, of that parcel of land which her husband had fenced in, so long as she should remain a widow. He was wounded in an attack by the Tarrantines upon his wigwam in about 1638/9. On March 8, 1664, he is among Indians who came to the court of Boston to put themselves uner porection and government.
Massasoit (Ousamequin) Sachem died between Sep 1661 and 13 Dec 1661 in Pokanoket, MA. (71) These dates are here given with the note that he was succeeded by Alexander. He is said in Notes on the Indian war to have been about eighty, as he was in his prime when the colonists first arrived. He Alive 1621 July in Pokanoket, MA.(72) Squanto, Winslow and others travel on a goodwill trip to Massasoit, stopping first at Namasket. An amusing aside from Winslow’s diary is that being weary they informed Massasoit of their desire to go to rest. “He laid us on the bed with himself and his wife, they at the one end and we at the other, it being only planks laid a foot from the groun, and thin mat upon them. Two more of his chief men, for want of room pressed by and upon us; so that we were worse weary of our lodging than of our journey.”
Massasoit may also have been one of the two Kings mentioned by Dermer in his trip of 1619. He was also known as Ousamequin (spelled variously). (73) He changed his name in 1632 Massasoit, as is well known through other narratives, was long a faithful friend to the colony, and likely prevented their early starvation. He remained so throughout his life, though hevehemently resisted any attempt by the English to introduce Christianity among his people.
He is described as “a very lusty man, in his best years, an able body, grave of countenance, and spare of speech; in his attire little or nothing differing from the rest of his followers, only in a gret chain of white bone beads about his neck; and at it, behind his neck, hands a little bag of tobacco which he drank, and gave us to drink.” Drake here explains that he believes this to mean smoking, a practice unaccustomed to the settlers. [Drake 86] “His face was painted with a sad red like murrey, and oiled both head and face, that he looked greasily. All his followers likewise were, in their faces, in part or in whole, painted, some black, some red, some yellow, and some white; some with crosses and other antic works; some had skins on them, and some naked; all strong, tall men in appearance. The king had in his boso, hanging on a string, a great long knife.” [Drake, 86, citing Mourt]
He principally resided at a place called Pokanoket or Pawkunawkut, or Mount Hope. which is now included in the town of Bristol, Rhode Island. [Drake 81]. The Whampanoags called in Sowwams. There was a place in Middleborough, and anohter in Raynham (near Fowling Pond) were he spent some part of particular seasons, and he had no doubt many others.
It is suggested that prior to the pilgrims’ arrival he may have met in 1619 with Captain Dermer who sends a messenger to “Pocanokit, which bodereth on the sea; whence came to see me two kings, attended with a guard of 50 armed men . . .” Drake feels these likely to be Massasoit and Quadequinna, his brother.
He was called by very many names, ( Woosamequin, Asuhmequin, Oosamequen, Osamekin, Owsamequin, Owsamequine, Ussamequen, etc.) but history has settled on Massasoit. [Drake 81]
It is said that he may have changed his name in 1632 as the result of the death of his brother Quadequina. Drake however submits that in 1632 Massaoit and Canonicus were at war, “and, as usual on such occasions, changed his name, and was ever after known by the name of Owsamequin, or Ousamequin.”
In 1623, Massasoit sent word to his friends in Plimouth that he was dangerously sick. Winslow hastens to his side with “medicines and cordials” with Hobbomok as interpreter and accompanied by Master John Hamden, “a gentleman of London.” “Contrary to Massasoit’s own expectation of death, ” by the kind exertions of Mr. Winslow, he in a short time entirely recovered.” [Drake 90]
In 1638, Winthrop says ” Owsamekin, the sachem of Acoomemeck,” came to him with sundry gifts from himself and the sachems of Mohegan, upon hearing that the English were about to make war on them. The governor assured Ousamequin that if they had not wronged the English, nor assisted their enemies, they had nothing to fear. [Drake 91]
We hear of Massasoit again in autumn of 1643 when Miantunnomoh apparently got possession of some of the dominions of Ousamequin and the Commissioners of the United Colonies order “that Plymouth labor by all due means to restore Woosamequin to his full liberties, in respect of any encroahments by the Nanohiggansetts, or any other natives . . . and that wossamequin be reduced to those former terms and agreements between Plymouth and him.”
In 1659 he sells a tract of land (now called Bridgewater) to Standish and others of Duxbury.[Drake 91]
In 1653, by a deed bering the date 9th March, Ousemaquin and his son Wamsitta [Wamsutta] sold another large tract to Plymouth. [Drake 91,92]
In 1657 he confirms the sale of Hog Island by his son Wamsitta to have been with his consent. [Drake 92]
Massasoit was alive in 1661, as he complained to the General Court of Massachusetts about an Attack within his dominions by Oneko. The court interfered in his behalf and the matter was settled.
From the relation of Dr. I. Mather it is clear that he lived until 1662. His words are, “Alexander being dead, [having died in 1662] his brother Philip of late cursed memory, rose up in his stead, and he was no sooner styled sachem, but immediately in the year 1662, there were vehement suspicions of his bloody treachery against the English.” [Drake 92}
Drake says whether Massasoit had more than two sons, is not certain, although it is confidently believed that he had. It is probable that his family was large. A company of soldier from Bridgewater, in a skirmish with Phiip, took his sister, and killed a brother of Ousamequin, whose name was Unkompoen, or Akkompoin."
? Massasoit (Ousamequin) Alive in 1674.(74) In Chronicles of the Indian war (found as a footnote in Notes on the Indian Wars in New England; NEHGR 15:265) it is said that in July, 1675 were killed "King Philip's brother, his privy councillor, (being one formerly educated at Cambridge,) and one of his chief captains; the heads of which three were brought to Boston." Parents: Massasoit (Ousamequin) Sachem.
Mooanam Massasoit was living in 1639 in Pokanoket, MA. (75)(76) He being called the eldest son of Massasoit and his father renew the 1621 Peace treaty Sept 25, 1639. Here is is called " Mooanam, (subsequently called Wamsutta, and finally, by the English, as we have seen, Alexander)" He was living in 1656 in Pokanoket, MA.(77) Pokanoket is used simply to identify the principal residence of Massasoit. In about the year of 1656 the two sons of Massasoit presented themselves before the court of Plymouth and requested English names, which accordingly were bestowed, i.e., Wamsutta, alias Alexander. Pometacom, alias Philip. There is some debate about this procedure and whether it occurred before or after Massasoit's death. He died in Jul 1662 in Pokanoket, MA. The Plymouth leaders, hearing that Alexander was "contriving mischief against the English" and was engaged with the Narragansets to design a rebellion, summoned Alexander to attend the next Court in Plymouth. The Sachem did not appear, and was forthwith brought before them and housed with Major Winslow at Marshfield until Governor Prince should return. Here he fell violently ill (some say mischief by the English) and died within a few days of returning to his home. There has been much historical debate about the details of Alexander's death. He was also known as Wamsutta, (spelled variously) Alexander. (78) In March of 1639 he is called Mooanam when the treaty between Massasoit and the colony is renewed. Parents: Massasoit (Ousamequin) Sachem.
Pometacom Massasoit Alive in 1656 in Pokanoket, MA.(81) He and his brother Wamsutta appear before the court to request English names. His becomes Philip. He owned Land now called Wrentham in 1662 in Wrentham, MA.(82) Philip sells land then called Wollomonopoag for twenty-four pounds and ten shillings. He was living on 6 Aug 1662 in Plymouth, MA.(83) He, his Secretary, and several Counselors renew the ancient treaty. Signing with him are his uncle and chief captain Uncompoin, Sausaman, Francis, the Sachem of Nauset and three others. He owned Mattapoisett in 1664 in MA.(84) He sells land to Hon. William Brenton of Newport. In the deed he is styled as Pumetacom alias Philip, Chief Sachem of Mount Hope, Cowsumpsit and of all territories thereunto belonging." He owned Dartmouth area in 1667 in Darthmouth, MA.(85) He sells to Constant Southworth and others for fifteen pounds. He owned New Meadows Neck in 1668. (86) This is an interesting conveyence as in this year Philip and Uncompawen lay claim to a part of New Meadow's Neck, alleging it was not intended to be conveyed in a former deed by Philip's father and brother, Ousamequin and Wamsutta, and to remove any cause of complaint it was re-purchased for eleven pounds. He owned 500 acres of land in Swanzea in 1669.(87) sold this land to Hugh Cole and others in this year He was Articles of Submission on 10 Apr 1671 in Taunton, MA.(88) In a tense atmosphere of mistrust, Philip meets the English at the Taunton Green Meeting House to discuss the increasingly acrimonious relationship between them. Philip's men in their warpaint stationed themselves on one side of the house, while the English in their Cromwellian outfits, slouched hats and bandoeers stood aside the other. Outflanked again by the English, he signs a yet another Submission to the English., and in this one is forced to agree to give up all his weapons to the government in Plymouth and to add insult to injury is forced to leave behind what arms he came with to the meeting. It was an agreement that would goad and provoke the Indians to revenge and bring catastrophe to all.
In September of the same year, 1671, he was compelled into yet another submission and in this he is forced to pay additional retribution to the colony for costs associated with his miscreant ways. Among those signing are Philip, Wobkowpahenit, Wuttakooseeim, Sonkann, Woonnashum, alias Nimrod, Woospasuck, alias Captain. He died in Jul 1676 in Mount Hope.(89) Of this legendary encounter much has been written. Suffice it to say that Church, led by an an Indian who knew of Philip s hiding place, and foe to Philip for having put his brother to death came to the famous Mount Hope swamp. Philip was ambushed and during escape was killed by an Indian by the name of Alderman. He was beheaded, quartered and left unburied. His head and hand were given to Alderman as a reward who, it was said by Church, "got many a penny" for showing the hand. He was also known as Philip, Metacomet. He owned Quiteclaims Acushena and Coaxet.(90) Does Philip have another alias: Drake 200: "At the court of Plimouth, 1673, Mr. Peter Talmon of Rhode Iland complained against Philip allies Wewasowanuett, sachem of Mount Hope, brother or predecessor of Pakananawkett as heire adminnostrator or successor vnto his brother or predecessor Wamsitta, Sopaquitt, or Alexander deceased, in an action on the case to the damage of l800 . . .(Drake terms the sopaquitt as "that is, nicknamed Alexander, according to the French mode of expression; as per sobriquet Alexander, as I imagine."
Of Philip much has been written historically, and suffice it to say, not without debate. Some feel that Philip was unable to contain the rage of his warriors at what they considered to be the injustices of the English, and was thus drawn into the war, rather than impelling it. By as many others the King Philip war was at his design. As war drew near, Plymouth and Boston were in disagreement over Philip's comportment and the meaning of the last submission which further infuriated the Plymouth men. Rhode Island, however, having no doubt that Philip intended war sent word to Plymouth that they were ready to stand by them in the event of war.
In Chronicles of the Indian war (found as a footnote in Notes on the Indian Wars in New England; NEHGR 15:265) it is said that in July, 1675 were killed "King Philip's brother, his privy councillor, (being one formerly educated at Cambridge,) and one of his chief captains; the heads of which three were brought to Boston."
In Captain Church's chronicles he relates that Annawon speaks of great exploits thusly: "an account of what mighty success he had had formerly, in the wars against many nations of Indians, when he served Asuhmequin, Philip's father." Parents: Massasoit (Ousamequin) Sachem.
Quadequina Massasoit died perhaps before 1632.(92) (93) Mentioned as the brother of Massasoit, who changed his name in 1632, perhaps as a result of the death of his brother. Quadequina is again mentioned in Mourt "and signified unto us, that their great sagamore Massasoit, was hard by, with Quadequina, his brother."[Drake p. 86] Parents: Unknown and unknown .
Unkompoen (Akkompoin) Massasoit died after 1662 in Bridgewater, Ma. (94) In a skirmish with Philip at Bridgewater by Bridgewater soldiers. She Alive on 6 Aug 1662 in Plymouth, MA.(95) He comes with Philip to renew the ancient peace treaty and is called here his uncle and chief captain Uncompoin. This man is mentioned as being Philip’s uncle in the Early History of Middleborough. If Philip was Massasoits son, this man would appear be a brother to Massasoit Parents: Unknown and unknown.
Matoonas Alive in 1675.(96) He was a prominent leader in King Philip’s war. A Nipnet. He Alive. (97) he is called Sachem of the clan of Nipmuks living at Pakachoog. His son murdered an Englishman and was executed on the gallows on Boston Common. After the execution his head was cut off and set upon the gallows where it remained for at least five years afterwards.
Mawtamp (Muttaump) Alive in 1675 in Quabaug.(99) He was among the prominent leaders in King Phillip’s war.
Miantonimo Alive in 1643 in Narraganset.(100) He quarelled with Uncas, the notorious Mohegan chief, made captive, and under the blessing of the Commissioners of the United Colonies was beheaded by Uncas. He is hailed as a noble and able chief. He died in 1643/44. (101) Probably killed in the same year in which he was captured by Uncas. He Alive.(102) Apparently a Narraganset Chieftan or Sachem killed in the Mohegan war. He was also known as Miantonimoh. Drake notes that in 1635 Canonicus and Miantunnomoh were at bitter enmity with Ousamequin over a land dispute in Providence. Massasoit ultimately gave up lands to the Narragansets now consisiting of Rhode Island, Prudence Island, and perhaps some others, together with Providence. (p. 91).
Children were: Canonchet.
Monoco Alive in 1675.(103) He is called one of the prominent leaders in King Philip’s war, and thus was alive about this time. He and “Sagamore-Sam” were Nashaways.
Moosuck Alive on 21 Jun 1675.(106) Apparently a Narraganset. Among those to whom The “Council of Massachusetts” sent a warning on this day to the effect that war would ensue should any treacherous conspiracy against them ensue..
Naanishcow (John Thomas) Alive.(107) Died at Natick, aged 110 years old.